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Wallis (Uvea) and Futuna

Map of Wallis (Uvea) and Futuna

The territory of Wallis and Futuna Islands is an archipelago of three main islands: Wallis, Futuna and Alofi.
Located between west Fiji, Samoa Islands to the east and Tonga to the southeast, they belong to the Polynesian Pacific. More than 2. 000 km separating them from New Caledonia. The climate is equatorial.

The island of Wallis (Uvea is the Polynesian name given to the island by its inhabitants), 200 km northeast of Futuna, with an area of ​​96 sq km, is named after the first sailor who discovered it in 1767, Captain Samuel Wallis.
Futuna (64 km ²) and the neighboring islet of Alofi (51 km ²), separated by a channel of 2 km, were discovered in 1616 by Dutch navigators. They gave them the name of "Horn Island". These volcanic islands and jagged coastline, protected by a reef belt, are not easily accessible by sea, but the cove Sigave allows boats to anchor there in peace.
The head of the territory, senior administrator of the territory, has the rank of prefect.
Futuna Island - Alofi Island - Ile Uvea - Wallis

Populated by Polynesians from Tonga Islands Wallis and Futuna Samoa for the two islands, visited by navigators in the seventeenth century, are not aware of significant European presence before the nineteenth century and the establishment of Catholic missions. The three kingdoms of Uvea, Alo and Sigave sign a protectorate treaty with France, ratified in 1887.
Used by the U.S. as a forward base during the Second World War, Wallis and Futuna choose to become Overseas Territory in a referendum in 1959. The territory's status is set by the Act of July 29, 1961.

- Brief history of the population of Oceania
The latest data from archeology, combined with research in linguistics and genetics, show that human migration from Asia to Oceania took place over 50,000 years.
It is first of all, 40,000 years ago, that Australia received its first inhabitants - the Aborigines of today while still welded to the current New Guinea. The sea level was lower than today because of the glacial period, many portions of land emerged then allowed the movement of human populations, and also that of animals and plants.

Separated from the Australian continent in the seventh millennium BC, the current New Guinea welcomes about 10,000 years ago, taro farmers who probably introduced the pig in the region, from where they dispersed, Asia the southeast.
The ancestors of Pacific islanders today have, over the last four millennia, is strain on the various Pacific archipelagoes, still untouched by human presence. These more recent migrants have established their civilization in Indonesia and Easter Island to Hawaii. They belong to the same family of languages ​​and cultures of the Austronesians, which is now divided into three geographical groups in the Pacific: east Polynesians, Micronesians and northwest, farther south, Melanesians .

- Customary institutions
Specificity of the territory: three kingdoms in the Republic.
If the territory as an administrative entity, the customary organization, respected by the Republic, three distinct realms: that of Uvea Wallis and those of Alo on Futuna and Sigave which merge with the administrative districts.

A Uvea, the king (hau), which bears the title of Lavelua, is the head of the customary hierarchy. He is assisted by a Prime Minister (Kalae-Kivalu) and five ministers: Mahe Fotuaika, for the Environment and Maritime Affairs; ului MONUA for Agriculture; Kulitea, responsible for Justice and Culture ; Fotua Tamai for Health; Mukoi Fenua, in charge of youth. The Cabinet is assisted Pului'Uvéa, police chief.
Lavelua called on the proposal of the population, district heads, called "Faipule" who themselves have authority over the village chiefs, the "Kolo Pule". The latter, which can remove the drudgery of general interest, are favored or dismissed by the population in general meetings, called "fono" taking place on Sunday in a meeting house called "fale fono".

The island of Uvea comprises 21 villages in 3 districts:
- Hihifo: Malae, Alele, Vaitupu, Vailala, Tufuone;
- Hahake: Liku, Akaaka, Mata Utu (capital), Ahoa, Falaleu, Haafuasia;
- Mua: Lavegahau, Tepa, Haatofo, Gahi, Utufua, Malaefoon, Teesi, Kolopopo, Halalo, Vaimalau.

On Futuna, the island is divided into two kingdoms: Sigave Alo and including a total of 15 villages:
- Alo: Malae, Taoa, Ono, Kolya, Alofi, Poi, Vele, Tamana, Tuatafa;
- Sigave: Leava, Nuku, Vaisei, Fiua, Toloke, Tavai.
Each king (wild) holds customary authority in his kingdom. The Tuiagaifo to Alo and Tui'sigave to Sigave are assisted by five ministers belonging to different villages, one count of ceremonies and a police chief.
It should be noted that the King of Sigave which currently holds the title of Tui'sigave, may also be that of Tamolevai, or Keletaona Safoka, according to the family to which it belongs.
In both kingdoms, village chiefs are appointed by a council of elders.